The SME Landscape in Africa: Opportunities and Emerging Prospects


Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are integral to Africa’s economic development, constituting approximately 90% of all businesses in certain regions. These entities are pivotal in generating employment, fostering innovation, and propelling economic growth. This paper conducts an in-depth examination of the current status of SMEs in Africa, identifies emerging opportunities and challenges, and analyzes successful SME case studies to inform and guide the development strategies of other SMEs in the region.

Status of SMEs in Africa

1. Economic Impact

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Africa span a wide array of sectors, including agriculture, manufacturing, services, and technology, making them significant contributors to employment and agents of poverty reduction. For instance, in Kenya, SMEs account for approximately 33% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employ over 30% of the workforce.

2. Challenges Faced by SMEs

Access to Finance: Many SMEs across Africa face challenges in securing financing, primarily due to the stringent lending criteria and high interest rates imposed by traditional banking institutions.

Infrastructure Deficiencies: The lack of adequate transportation, power, and technological infrastructure also significantly impedes the operational capabilities and growth potential of these businesses.

New opportunities for SMEs in Africa

1. Digital Transformation

In recent years, significant advancements in telecommunications networks, mobile internet access, and information and communication technology (ICT) have catalyzed digitalization initiatives across Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic, referred to here as the Novel Coronavirus epidemic, has further accelerated this digital innovation, underscoring the need for expanded digital infrastructure and services. Since 2020, numerous African governments and the African Union (AU) have crafted digital transformation strategies extending to 2030, initiating regulatory reforms to enhance digital access, foster private investment, and develop new digital capabilities.

The digital services sector presents manifold opportunities for 2023 and beyond. These digital strategies are poised to enhance sectors including agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, logistics, retail, healthcare, education, entertainment, finance, and government. Such developments are expected to bolster the ICT sectors in major hubs like Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, and Egypt, attract foreign investment, and address the considerable deficits in mobile network coverage, smartphone penetration, and internet access across the continent.

Table 1: Drivers and constraints of business in Africa

FieldPositive Driving FactorsNegative Factors
Energy, Metals, and MaterialsHigh prices and strong global demand
Increased foreign investment interest
Long-term development plans
High and rising input and operating costs
Some projects are exposed to risks from Russia
Light Manufacturing and AutomotiveSustained domestic demand/regional trade
Foreign investment interest and global value chain integration
Key policy priorities (supportive)
Pressure from rapidly rising input and operating costs (fuel, electricity, etc.)
Pressure on labor costs (wages/training)
Construction and Building MaterialsProject pipelines (energy and transportation)
Real estate and utility development
Investing in domestic/regional capacity
Rising costs of key inputs and fuel costs
Some projects are likely to be delayed due to financing constraints
Agriculture and Food ProcessingFarm-gate prices rise on strong domestic and foreign demandIncreased input costs (fuel/fertilizer) squeezing margins and imports
Rising import costs
Retail and FMCG IndustriesProsperous urban markets (epidemic recovery)Inflationary squeeze on household incomes
Costs of adapting to new delivery models
Healthcare (Pharmaceuticals) and EducationPublic and private sector investment plans
Main policy priorities (national/multilateral)
Significant investment required (infrastructure/services)
Long-term funding issues and constraints
Electronic CommunicationsIncreased demand (positive impact of the epidemic)
Growing competition and infrastructure
Identified as a critical success factor
Supply chain disruptions and delayed deliveries
Transportation and LogisticsTrade facilitation (hard/soft) and cross-border demandSignificant increase in operating costs (fuel)
Financial ServicesPolicies to promote financial inclusion (fintech, etc.)
Rising (aspiring) middle class
Tightened credit conditions (interest rate/risk aversion)

The digital revolution has significantly enhanced the prospects for SMEs. The proliferation of mobile technology and the internet has not only opened up new markets but also streamlined business processes. SMEs are increasingly capitalizing on the benefits of the digital economy and embracing digital transformation to foster continuous development and adapt to changing market dynamics.

2. Green Economy

Globally, there is a shift towards sustainable business practices, and Africa aligns with this trend. The African Union’s Agenda 2063 prioritizes enhancing capacities to address climate change and advance sustainable development. African nations are actively fostering the transition to green energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and building capacities for sustainability. Driven by worldwide demand for eco-friendly products, SMEs in Africa find opportunities in green energy, recycling, and sustainable agriculture. The Africa Green Stimulus Program, for instance, aims to accelerate sustainable development continent-wide.

The African Development Bank has initiated substantial funding mechanisms, including a $500 million “green baseload” facility to offer concessional financing and technical assistance for expanding renewable energy. Additionally, a similar fund supports small-scale renewable energy projects to enhance energy security in impoverished communities. Moreover, a significant $20 billion investment aims to construct a 10 gigawatt solar power zone across 11 countries in the Sahara region.

A practical example of these initiatives is RCL Foods in South Africa, which has constructed a 6 MW biogas power plant in Leustenburg. This facility, utilizing chicken manure, provides 65% of the electricity needs for local chicken farms and an animal feed mill, with surplus energy sold to the national grid. This approach not only reduces energy costs but also generates additional revenue, highlighting the economic and environmental benefits of sustainable practices.

Case Study 1: Learning from the Success of M-Pesa

In Kenya, M-Pesa, a mobile money transfer service, has revolutionized financial services by enhancing operational efficiency and security for SMEs. Launched in 2007 by Vodafone Group and Safaricom, Kenya’s predominant mobile network operator, M-Pesa has become the leading e-wallet in Kenya and Africa’s largest mobile financial service. It facilitates deposits, withdrawals, transfers, and payments for goods and services via mobile devices, serving 51 million active users and processing over 61 million transactions daily.

M-Pesa’s rapid ascent to a market leader was not solely due to its innovative design but was also significantly influenced by favorable external factors including optimal timing, supportive policy environments, and a conducive market environment. Key elements of M-Pesa’s successful expansion include:

1. Market Selection and Timing: M-Pesa leveraged increasing mobile penetration, which expanded its business potential as mobile devices became prevalent, thereby broadening the market for mobile wallets.

Figure 1: Rising number of registered users and market penetration of telecom services in Kenya
(Source: CA, Operators’ Returns)

2. Adaptation to Local Needs: Before widespread mobile adoption, rural Kenyans traditionally carried cash, a risky practice given the scarcity of banking services. M-Pesa, facilitated by legal recognition of e-money and a shift towards mobile-based financial services, provided a secure and convenient financial alternative.

3. Strategic Technology and Partnerships: Through its agent model, M-Pesa has made financial services more accessible, especially in underserved areas. The M-Shwari platform, developed with Kenya’s Bank of Africa (NCBA), utilizes telecom data for credit assessments, offering loans and savings services and thus broadening financial inclusion.

4. Socio-economic Impact and Government Support: M-Pesa has not only improved economic stability for households during financial downturns but has also played a pivotal role in lifting approximately 194,000 Kenyan households out of poverty. The Kenyan government’s endorsement of mobile financial technologies and streamlining of regulatory processes have been crucial in fostering M-Pesa’s growth and integration into the national economy.

Photo: M-Pesa agency locations


The dynamic landscape of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Africa, marked by persistent challenges such as limited access to finance and inadequate infrastructure, is simultaneously enriched by substantial growth opportunities through digital transformation and the green economy. The success of M-Pesa offers profound insights into the effective use of technology and policy to bolster SME development.

M-Pesa exemplifies the significance of adaptable business models and robust government support in fostering SME growth. Its strategies, including an extensive agent network and strategic banking partnerships, have not only expanded its financial service reach but also enhanced service accessibility and efficiency. These elements are crucial for other African SMEs striving for sustainable growth amidst rapidly evolving market conditions.

Looking ahead, the progress of African SMEs will hinge on a multifaceted approach: sustained governmental policy and regulatory support, proactive adoption of digital and green innovations, and active engagement in global value chains. These efforts will enable SMEs to extend their market reach and enhance their operational capabilities.

In essence, African SMEs are poised to play a pivotal role in the future economy through continuous innovation and adaptation, supported by conducive policies and technological advancements. Their contribution will be instrumental in promoting economic diversification, inclusive growth, and sustainable development. The collective commitment of local and international stakeholders is essential to harness the full potential of SMEs as catalysts of economic transformation in Africa.


I am a junior from Hefei University of Technology. I majored in International Economics and Trade, and I have the ability of paper writing and data processing analysis. I have presided over the national innovation training program for college students as the first person in charge, published papers as the first author, and published internal reports as the first author and got the approval from the leaders of state institutions. In terms of social practice, I have served as the head of the theory construction department of the college party group and the class Civic Committee member in the university, with leadership and organizational skills, and treat the work seriously and responsibly.

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